Review Sheet for Phil 32 Final Exam


See also review sheet for Midterm Exam


1. emphasis on GodŐs omnipotence and wisdom
2. his modifications of DescartesŐs principles
3. ideas in God (and various arguments for this position)
4. Occasionalism
the definition of cause (true or real causes vs. natural or occasional causes),
- various arguments for occasionalism (the arguments from omnipotence, concurrence, perception, against bodies and minds acting)


1. God is the only substance, has infinite attributes, and everything is in God (and his argument for this position)
2. his modifications of DescartesŐs principles
3. freedom/free will/determinism
4. no transcendent creation
5. rejection of final causes --- Look at the Appendix to Part I!!!!
6. bodies and ideas as modes (two different kinds of modes-finite and infinite)
7. three kinds of knowledge
8. double aspect theory (of mind-body relationship)


1. the nature of substance (complete concept, self-sufficiency, eternal, etc.)
2. freedom, hypothetical vs. absolute necessity
3. the principle of the identity of indiscernibles
4. Optimism
5. the reducibility of relations
6. Pre-established Harmony (arguments for it and against Occasionalism and Physical Influx)
7. rejection of DescartesŐs position on the nature of body as extension
8. distinction between divine will and divine understanding (possible worlds)
9. Principle of Sufficient Reason and Principle of Contradiction
10. monads have perceptions and appetitions
11. LeibnizŐs main positions and arguments in the works we read.


1. nature and parts of general project
2. sources of experience (sensation and reflection)
3. general problems with empiricism as Locke explains it
4. simple vs. complex ideas (substance, mode, relations, abstract ideas)

5. LockeŐs notion of substance
6. primary vs. secondary quality distinction (and arguments for it)
7. activities by which complex ideas are formed (abstraction, comparison, combination)
8. definition, kinds, extent, and degrees of knowledge